Endorphins - mediate pain at receptor sites. In an injury receptors in skin make electrical signals that goes up the spinal cord to the brain. The brain then evaluates pain by releasing pain killers called endorphins which bind at opiate receptor sites of neurons to mediate pain. Endorphins effect the dopamine pathway that feeds into the frontal lobe. These pathways inhibit the flow of dopamine. Vast quantities of endorphins are released and nerves are shut off so more dopamine flows through pathway to get to frontal lobe therefore replacing pain with pleasure.
LSD - lysergic acid diethylamide
Limbic system - a group of brain structures, including the hippocampus, amygdala, dentate gyrus, cingulate gyrus, gyrus fornicatus, the archicortex, and their interconnections and connections with the hypothalamus, septal area, and a medial area of the mesencephalic tegmentum. The system is activated by motivated behavior and arousal, and it influences the endocrine and autonomic motor systems.
Neurons - the fundamental cellular unit of the nervous system, consisting of a nucleus with all its processes and extensions. Neurons function in initiation and conduction of impulses. In addition, the brain cells influence cells by secreting neurotransmitters that function to alter the affected cell by actually physically contacting it. Alternatively, a neuron may release neurohormones into the bloodstream.
Neurotransmitters - substance that is released when the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron is excited. The substance then travels across the synapse to act on the target cell to either inhibit or excite it. Disorders in the brain physiology of neurotransmitters have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of psychiatric illnesses.
Norepinephrine - a hormone produced by the adrenal medulla, similar in chemical and pharmacological properties to epinephrine (also a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system). Norephinephrine and epinephrine are the two active hormones that cause some of the physiological expressions of fear and anxiety and have been found to be in excess in some anxiety disorders when a disturbance in their metabolism occurs.
Oxytocin - Oxytocin is a pituitary hormone that stimulates muscle contraction and sensitizes nerves. Dopamine stimulates the production of oxytocin. Fewer oxytocin receptors create less attachment in relationships.
Phenylethalimine - chemical which plays a critical role in the limbic system known to give a feeling of bliss. It is a natural ingredient in chocolate.
Prozac - fluoxetine hydrochloride, an anti-depressant that boosts serotonin, a neurotransmitter.
Receptor - the terminal structure of a neuron, specialized to receive stimuli and transmit them to the spinal cord and brain.
Sensory Deprevation - Serotonin system is effected through means of fasting and other related activities. The levels of serotonin in the thalamus are shifted causing the thalamus to loose some of its ability to control the flow of information coming in from the senses.
Serotonin - a chemical, 5-hydrozytryptamine (5-HT), present in blood platelets, the gastrointestinal tract, and certain regions of the brain. It plays an important role in blood clotting, stimulating a strong heart beat, initiating sleep, fighting depression (prescription drugs that treat depression raise the brain's levels of serotonin) and causing migraine headaches in susceptible individuals (because of its ability to constrict blood vessels or cause them to spasm). Serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid L-tryptophan. Serotonin (and, therefore, L-tyrptophan) also serves as a precursor for the pineal hormone melatonin, which regulates the body's clock.
Substance P - An 11-amino acid peptide that is believed to be important as a neurotransmitter in the pain fiber system. This substance may also be important in eliciting local tissue reactions resembling inflammation.
Synapse - The point of junction between two neurons in a neural pathway, where the termination of the axon of one neuron comes into close proximity with the cell body or dendrites of another. At this point, where the relationship of the two neurons is one of contact only, the impulse traveling in the first neuron initiates an impulse in the second neuron. Synapses are polarized, i.e., the impulses pass in one direction only. They are susceptible to fatigue, offer a resistance to the passage of impulses, and are markedly susceptible to the effects of oxygen deficiency, anesthetics, and other agents, including therapeutic drugs and toxic chemicals.
Thalamus - A large ovoid mass of gray matter at the base of the brain, the chief center for transmission of sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex.