Milestones in Neuroscience ResearchSome of the best references for the events that document the history of the neurosciences are:
The following dates and events were gathered from several sources. These events are certainly not all of the important events to take place in neuroscience...just some of the ones that I have selected.
- M.A.B. Brazier. A History of the Electrical Activity of the Brain, London: Pitman, 1961
- M.A.B. Brazier. A History of Neurophysiology in the 19th Century, New York: Raven Press, 1988
- S. Finger. Origins of Neuroscience, New York: Oxford University Press, 1994
- F.C. Rose and W.F. Bynum. Historical Aspects of the Neurosciences. A Festschrift for Macdonald Critchely, New York: Raven Press, 1982
3000 B.C. to 0 A.D.ca. 4000 B.C. - Euphoriant effect of poppy plant reported in Sumerian records
ca. 2700 B.C. - Shen Nung originates acupuncture
384-322 B.C. - Aristotle writes on sleep
335-280 B.C. - Herophilus (the "Father of Anatomy")
0 A.D. to 1500177 - Galen lecture "On the Brain"
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1668 - l'Abbe Edme Mariotte discovers the blind spot
1673 - Joseph DuVerney uses experimental ablation technique in pigeons
1684 - Raymond Vieussens publishes "Neuronographia Universalis"
1695 - H. Ridley publishes "The Anatomy of the Brain"
1700 - 18001709 - Domenico Mistichelli describes pyramidal decussation
1740 - Emanuel Swedenborg publishes "Oeconomia regni animalis"
1782 - Francesco Gennari publishes work on "lineola albidior" (later known as the stripe of Gennari)
1786 - Felix Vicq d'Azyr discovers the locus coeruleus
1791 - Luigi Galvani publishes work on electrical stimulation of frog nerves
1800 - 18501800 - Alessandro Volta invents the wet cell battery
1800 - Humphrey Davy discovers nitrous oxide
1803 - Friedrich Serturner isolates morphine from opium
1805 - Felix Vicq d'Azyr discovers the red nucleus
1808 - Franz Joseph Gall publishes work on phrenology
1809 - Luigi Rolando uses galvanic current to stimulate cortex
1811 - Charles Bell discusses functional differences between dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal cord
1813 - Felix Vicq d'Azyr discovers the claustrum
1817 - James Parkinson publishes "An Essay of the Shaking Palsy"
1821 - Francois Magendie discusses functional differences between dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal cord
1822 - Karl Friedrich Burdach names cingular gyrus
1822 - Karl Friedrich Burdach distinguishes lateral and medial geniculate
1824 - John C. Caldwell publishes "Elements of Phrenology"
1824 - Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens details ablation to study behavior
1825 - John P. Harrison first argues against phrenology
1826 - Johannes Muller publishes theory of "specific nerve energies"
1837 - Jan Purkyne (Purkinje) describes cerebellar cells
1842 - Crawford W. Long uses ether on man
1844 - Robert Remak provides first illustration of 6-layered cortex
1846 - Carlo Matteucci invents the kymograph
1845 - Horace Wells uses nitrous oxide during a tooth extraction
1846 - William Morton demonstrates ether anesthesia at Mass. Gen. Hospital
1850 - 19001859 - Charles Darwin publishes "On the Origin of Species"
1861 - Paul Broca discusses cortical localization
1866 - John Langdon Haydon Down publishes work on congenital "idiots"
1870 - Eduard Hitzig and Gustav Fritsch discover cortical motor area of dog using electrical stimulation
1872 - George Huntington describes symptoms of a hereditary chorea
1873 - Camillo Golgi publishes first work on the silver nitrate method
1874 - Vladimir Alekseyevich Betz publishes work on giant pyramidal cells
1874 - Roberts Bartholow electrically stimulates human cortical tissue
1874 - Carl Wernicke publishes work on aphasias
1875 - Sir David Ferrier describes different parts of monkey motor cortex
1875 - Richard Caton is first to record electrical activity from the brain
1876 - Franz Christian Boll discovers rhodopsin
1877 - Jean-Martin Charcot publishes "Lectures on the Diseases of the Nervous System
1878 - W. Bevan Lewis publishes work on giant pyramidal cells of human precentral gyrus
1878 - Paul Broca publishes work on the "great limbic lobe"
1878 - W.R. Gowers publishes "Unilateral Gunshot Injury to the Spinal Cord
1879 - William Crookes invents the cathode ray tube
1880 - Edouard Gelineau introduces the word "narcolepsy"
1884 - Karl Koller discovers anesthetic properties of cocaine
1884 - Georges Gilles de la Tourette describes several movement disorders
1885 - C. Weigert introduces hematoxylin to stain myelin
1886 - V. Marchi publishes procedure to stain degenerating myelin
1887 - Sergei Korsakoff describes symptoms characteristic in alcoholics
1889 - Santiago Ramon y Cajal argues that nerve cells are independent elements
1889 - William His coins term "dendrite"
1891 - Wilhelm von Waldeyer coins the term "neuron"
1894 - Franz Nissl stains neurons with dahlia violet
1895 - William His first uses the term "hypothalamus"
1895 - Wilhelm Konrad Rontgen invents the X-ray
1896 - Rudolph Albert von Kolliker coins the term "axon"
1897 - Ivan Petrovich Pavlov publishes work on physiology of digestion
1897 - John Jacob Abel isolates adrenalin
1897 - Sir Charles Scott Sherrington coins term "synapse"
1898 - Edward L. Thorndike describes the "puzzle box"
1899 - August Bier uses intraspinal anesthesia with cocaine
1899 - Sigmund Freud publishes "The Interpretation of Dreams"
1900 - 19501905 - Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon have their first intelligence test
1906 - Alois Alzheimer describes patient with dementia
1906 - Golgi and Cajal-Nobel Prize-Structure of the Nervous System
1908 - V. Horsley and R.H. Clarke design stereotaxic instrument
1909 - Cushing is first to electrically stimulate human sensory cortex
1909 - Korbinian Brodmann describes 52 discrete cortical areas
1910 - Emil Kraepelin names "Alzheimer's disease"
1911 - Allvar Gullstrand-Nobel Prize-Optics of the eye
1914 - Robert Barany-Nobel Prize-Vestibular apparatus
1919 - Cecile Vogt describes over 200 cortical areas
1921 - Otto Loewi publishes work on "Vagusstoff"
1929 - Hans Berger demonstrates first human electroencephalogram
1929 - Karl Lashley defines "equipotentiality" and "mass action"
1927 - J. Wagner-Jauregg-Nobel Prize-Malaria to treat dementia paralyses
1932 - Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska invent the electron microscope
1932 - Edgar Douglas Adrian and Charles S. Sherrington share Nobel Prize for work on the function of neurons
1935 - Frederic Bremer uses cerveau isole prepartion to study sleep
1936 - Egas Moniz publishes work on the first human frontal lobotomy
1936 - Henry Hallett Dale and Otto Loewi share Nobel Prize for work on the chemical transmission between nerves
1937 - James Papez publishes work on limbic circuit
1937 - Heinrich Kluver and Paul Bucy publish work on bilateral temporal lobectomies
1944 - Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser share Nobel Prize for work on the functions of single nerve fiber
1946 - Kenneth Cole develops the voltage clamp
1949 - A.C.A.F. Egas Moniz-Nobel Prize-Leucotomy to treat certain psychoses
1949 - Walter Rudolph Hess receives Nobel Prize for work on the "Interbrain"
1950 - present1950 - Karl Lashley publishes "In Search of the Engram"
1953 - Eugene Aserinski and Nathaniel Kleitman describe rapid eye movements (REM) during sleep
1953 - H. Kluver and E. Barrera introduce Luxol fast blue MBS stain
1961 - Georg Von Bekesy-Nobel Prize-function of the cochlea
1963 - John Carew Eccles, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Fielding Huxley share Nobel Prize for work on the mechanisms of the neuron cell membrane
1965 - Ronald Melzack and Patrick D. Wall publish gate control theory of pain
1967 - Ragnar Arthur Granit, Halden Keffer Hartline and George Wald share Nobel Prize for work on the mechanisms of vision
1970 - Society for Neuroscience is founded
1970 - Julius Axelrod, Bernard Katz and Ulf Svante von Euler share Nobel Prize for work on neurotransmitters
1973 - Konrad Z. Lorenz, Nikolaas Tinbergen and Karl von Frisch share Nobel Prize for work on ethology
1977 - Roger Guillemin and Andrew Victor Schally share Nobel Prize for work on peptides in the brain
1981 - David Hunter Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel-Nobel Prize-visual system
1981 - Roger Wolcott Sperry awarded Nobel Prize--functions brain hemispheres